Last week the Delaware Supreme Court ruled on the appeal of CML V, LLC v. Bax, in which the Court of Chancery held last year that a creditor of an insolvent LLC does not have standing to maintain a derivative suit in the name of the LLC against its managers. I wrote about that surprising result here – surprising because it is inconsistent with the corporate rule.
Delaware’s Supreme Court affirmed the Court of Chancery decision, holding that “Section 18-1002 of the LLC Act, by its plain language, limits LLC derivative standing to ‘member[s]’ or ‘assignee[s],’ and thereby denies derivative standing to LLC creditors.” CML V, LLC v. Bax, No. 735,2010, 2011 Del. LEXIS 480, at *24 (Del. Sept. 2, 2011) (brackets in the original).
The Court’s conclusion turned on its analysis of Sections 18-1001 and 18-1002 of the Delaware LLC Act:
§ 18-1001. Right to bring action. A member or an assignee of a limited liability company interest may bring an action in the Court of Chancery in the right of a limited liability company to recover a judgment in its favor if managers or members with authority to do so have refused to bring the action or if an effort to cause those managers or members to bring the action is not likely to succeed.
§ 18-1002. Proper plaintiff. In a derivative action, the plaintiff must be a member or an assignee of a limited liability company interest at the time of bringing the action and:
(1) At the time of the transaction of which the plaintiff complains; or
(2) The plaintiff’s status as a member or an assignee of a limited liability company interest had devolved upon the plaintiff by operation of law or pursuant to the terms of a limited liability company agreement from a person who was a member or an assignee of a limited liability company interest at the time of the transaction.
The Court characterized Section 18-1001 as creating a statutory right, and Section 18-1002 as requiring that the plaintiff be an LLC member or an assignee of a member. The Court emphasized the mandatory language in Section 18-1002: “must be a member or assignee,” and found Sections 18-1002 and 18-1002 to be unambiguous. CML, 2011 Del. LEXIS 480, at *11.
CML argued that (i) Section 18-1001 authorizes derivative standing to members or assignees but is not by its language exclusive, (ii) Section 18-1002 addresses only the chronology of such a member’s or assignee’s status, and (iii) when the two sections are read together they are similar in their effect to the comparable provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law, Del. Code Ann. tit. 8, § 327, which has long been interpreted as allowing derivative standing for creditors of insolvent corporations.
CML’s position is buttressed by what the Court of Chancery characterized as an awkward fact:
[V]irtually no one has construed the derivative standing provisions as barring creditors of an insolvent LLC from filing suit. Particularly in light of Production Resources and Gheewalla, an exclusive reading of Section 18-1002 would cause LLC derivative actions to differ markedly from their corporate cousins. If practitioners widely understood the derivative standing provisions to have this effect, one would expect treatises, articles, and commentaries to call attention to that fact. … [O]ne also would expect courts to have encountered parties raising the statutory provisions as a defense. Yet the universe of authorities favoring the no-standing position consists of (i) a single sentence at the end of a footnote in one Delaware treatise, see Symonds & O’Toole, supra, § 9.09, at 9-61 n.270, and (ii) abbreviated treatment in an unreported district court decision, see Magten, 2007 WL 129003, at *3.
Many commentators, by contrast, have assumed that creditors of an insolvent LLC can sue derivatively. In light of this assumption, they have debated vigorously whether an LLC agreement can limit the fiduciary duties that the creditors would invoke. That question never arises if creditors lack standing to sue under Section 18-1002.
CML V, LLC v. Bax, No. 5373-VCL, 2010 Del. Ch. LEXIS 220, at *12-13 (Del. Ch. Nov. 3, 2010) (footnote omitted).
This widespread reading of Sections 18-1001 and 18-1002 significantly undercuts the Court’s assertion that these two sections are unambiguous.
Nonetheless, the Court has spoken and the rule is now clear, at least until changed by legislative action. Given the gulf between the Court’s reading of the statute and the widespread past interpretations by commentators and practicing lawyers, it would not be surprising to see legislative action on this point. As the Court said, “The General Assembly is well suited to make that policy choice and we must honor that choice.” CML, 2011 Del. LEXIS 480, at *13.