The Delaware Court of Chancery decided earlier this month that a creditor of an insolvent LLC does not have standing to maintain a derivative suit in the name of the LLC against its managers. CML V, LLC v. Bax, No. 5373-VCL, 2010 Del. Ch. LEXIS 220 (Del. Ch. Nov. 3, 2010). The court’s lengthy opinion is nicely summarized by Francis Pileggi, here.
This blog post focuses on only one aspect of the opinion – its treatment of the interplay between the LLC Act’s statutory provisions and the judicially-created, derivative-suit remedy available to the courts under their general equity jurisdiction. My thesis is that the court gave unduly short shrift to the equitable underpinnings of the derivative suit.
The CML ruling is in contrast to the rule for corporations. Creditors of an insolvent corporation do have standing in Delaware to bring derivative claims. N. Am. Catholic Educ. Programming Found., Inc. v. Gheewalla, 930 A.2d 92, 101 (Del. 2007).
The CML conclusion surprised many practitioners. The court itself admitted the “awkward fact” that “virtually no one has construed the derivative standing provisions as barring creditors of an insolvent LLC from filing [a derivative] suit.” CML, 2010 Del. Ch. LEXIS 220, at *12.
The result is surprising because it is inconsistent with the corporate rule and with the policy behind that rule. The policy of the corporate rule was noted by the court: “When a corporation is insolvent, the creditors become ‘the principal constituency injured by any fiduciary breaches that diminish the firm’s value.’” Id. at *6 (quoting Gheewalla, 930 A.2d at 102).
That policy applies as much to an insolvent LLC as it does to an insolvent corporation. If the entity is insolvent, the members’ or shareholders’ economic interest in the LLC or corporation has been wiped out. The creditors then in effect stand in the shoes of the members or shareholders.
The CML court’s conclusion turned on its analysis of Sections 18-1001 and 18-1002 of the Delaware LLC Act:
§ 18-1001. Right to bring action.
A member or an assignee of a limited liability company interest may bring an action in the Court of Chancery in the right of a limited liability company to recover a judgment in its favor if managers or members with authority to do so have refused to bring the action or if an effort to cause those managers or members to bring the action is not likely to succeed.
§ 18-1002. Proper plaintiff.
In a derivative action, the plaintiff must be a member or an assignee of a limited liability company interest at the time of bringing the action and:
(1) At the time of the transaction of which the plaintiff complains; or
(2) The plaintiff’s status as a member or an assignee of a limited liability company interest had devolved upon the plaintiff by operation of law or pursuant to the terms of a limited liability company agreement from a person who was a member or an assignee of a limited liability company interest at the time of the transaction.
(Emphasis added.) The court characterized Section 18-1001 as creating a statutory right, and Section 18-1002 as mandating that the plaintiff must be a member or an assignee of a member. CML, 2010 Del. Ch. LEXIS 220, at *7-8.
The court did not discuss Section 18-1002’s references to “a member or an assignee.” Creditors of an insolvent LLC, like assignees of member interests in a solvent LLC, hold the economic interest in the LLC and become the principal constituency injured by fiduciary breaches. It’s hard to see why such a creditor should not be treated like an assignee of the members’ interests. And assignees are explicitly granted standing in Section 18-1001 to initiate a derivative suit.
The court also did not discuss in any detail the equity-court origins of the derivative-suit remedy. The court’s disregard of the history of the derivative suit led it to conclude that Sections 18-1001 and 18-1002 are the sole source of authority for an LLC derivative suit. CML, 2010 Del. Ch. LEXIS 220, at *8-9.
That analysis contrasts with the court’s view of Section 327 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (DGCL). Section 327 states: “In any derivative suit instituted by a stockholder of a corporation, it shall be averred in the complaint that the plaintiff was a stockholder of the corporation at the time of the transaction of which such stockholder complains or that such stockholder’s stock thereafter devolved upon such stockholder by operation of law.” The CML court characterized Section 327 as not creating the right to sue derivatively and as not saying that only stockholders can sue derivatively. CML, 2010 Del. Ch. LEXIS 220, at *10 (citing Schoon v. Smith, 953 A.2d 196, 204 (Del. 2008)).
The reason why Section 327 does not create the right to sue is that the derivative-suit remedy was a judicial creation. Schoon describes at length how the right of shareholders to sue derivatively originated in the equity courts in order to prevent a failure of justice, and how the shareholder derivative suit was later restricted by Section 327 to prevent strike suits. Schoon, 953 A.2d at 201-03.
Delaware courts have applied equitable remedies to LLCs even when the remedy is not set forth in the LLC Act, pursuant to the courts’ general equity powers. E.g., Ross Holding & Mgmt. Co. v. Advance Realty Group, LLC, No. 4113-VCN, 2010 Del. Ch. LEXIS 184 (Del. Ch. Sept. 2, 2010) (appointment of a receiver). Consistent with those cases, Delaware presumably would have applied the derivative-suit remedy to LLCs even if Delaware’s LLC Act made no mention of derivative suits.
The long history of the derivative-suit remedy and the courts’ willingness in general to assert equitable remedies imply that the LLC Act should not be viewed as the sole authority for LLC member derivative suits. And if so, one should read Sections 18-1001 and 18-1002 together, interpreting them much as DGCL Section 372 has been interpreted. Under that reading, the “must” in Section 18-1002 is seen as applying the contemporaneous ownership requirement to the subset of derivative suits instituted by an LLC member, and Section 18-1002 does not close the courthouse doors to a creditor bringing a derivative suit in the name of an insolvent LLC.
The CML court was troubled by the fact that “virtually no one has construed the derivative standing provisions as barring creditors of an insolvent LLC from filing suit.” CML, 2010 Del. Ch. LEXIS 220, at *12. The court never answered the obvious question – why is that? The answer is that the court’s perfunctory treatment of the history of the derivative-suit remedy and its disregard of its own general equity jurisdiction resulted in an outré and anomalous conclusion.